Monthly Archives

May 2018


Can Antarctica Join European Union?

Can Antarctica Join European Union?

So I was surfing online, suddenly I stumbled upon this question ‘can Antarctica join European Union and I was like this is a very good question. Therefore on this post, I will be writing on the possibility of Antarctica join European Union. first of all let us understand what Antarctica is and who they are.


Before going further towards knowing the possibility of Antarctica join European Union, let us consider the word Antarctica.

Antarctica means “Opposite of the Arctic” or “opposite Of the North”. It is a Continent mostly covered by ice. Just like every other continent in the world, they have what others have except that it is always cold and dry there. One thing we need to pick here is that Antarctica is a continent of its own just like every other continent and it is said to be very big, bigger than the European continent.

European Union

One thing about European Union is the fact that its primary location is situated in no other place than Europe with about 28 member states with the primary aim of ensuring a positive free flow movement of not just goods and services but capital and people as well. All the member states in the European Union makes use of Euro currency.

Conditions For Joining European Union

Before a country can join the European Union, that country must really comply with European Union standards and rules, the country must also have the consent of the European Union institutions and European Union member states and the country must have the consent of their citizens which is made known by the national parliament or of course through referendum. This however brings us back to the question ‘can Antarctica join European Union?.

Can Antarctica Join European Union?

The answer to this question might come in different forms. The possibility of Antarctica join European Union is slow. Almost not possible because of some important reasons.

When studying about Antarctica, we discovered that Antarctica is a continent made up of cities states e.t.c. just like the European continents. And when we were studying about the European Union, we discovered that its members are already mostly Europeans as a continent. So I think its not possible for Antarctica Join European Union because she is a continent of her own.

Secondly even though Antarctica makes use of the European currency, that doesn’t give the reason why they should as a continent join the European Union. They are not Europeans and of course the current treaty of EU is limited to EU members alone therfore making it impossible to happen.

In conclusion, with the points listed above, it is clear that Antarctica will not join the European Union.


How To Submit/Add Your Website/Blog To UC News

How To Submit/Add Your Website/Blog To UC News

Having a website or blog is not a problem, the problem is having adequate or should I call it massive genuine visitors perhaps audience that will read your content.

For the past years I’ve been blogging, I have realized that it is not about blogging, it is not about writing genuine contents, it’s about having visitors who will read and appreciate those contents you’ve written. Oh! what a joy it is when immediately after publishing a post, you go to google analytics just to find out that 50 persons are already on the post reading them. It gives joy and makes you want to write more. That is why you need toSubmit/Add Your Website/Blog To UC News.

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What am I saying? If you are looking for a medium through which you can increase the people that visit your site, UC browser news is here to help. What it will do is to give you a backlink to your site.

As a blogger or as a website owner, you should know what a backlink is all about and it’s importance. Backlink is one of those tools that can help you rank very well in Google Search Engine as long as you are playing your games right. Trust t me, it will be hard for you to outrank a website with thousands of backlinks on a particular keyword when you just have three backlinks. So, UC News will give you a backlink to your website.

How To Submit/Add Your Website/Blog To UC News

Without wasting much time, let me go ahead and explain steps on how you can add your website to UC News for traffic. Here is how you it works:

You need to submit or add your website perhaps blog whatever you choose to call it to UC browser, UC Web or UC News. After the submission, they (UC News) officials will check your site inform of review and in the process of doing that, they will thoroughly analyse your website or blog and its contents. The application review determines whether they will approve your application or not. Perhaps, if your website is very good, safe and not spammy, within 24 to 48 hours, you will start seeing some of your content on the UC News when you open your uc browser.

Meanwhile, there might be a problem on the way. You will be asked for a PAN CARD NUMBER including a photograph of the proof. I recommend you get the PAN NUMBER and submit it together with a photograph to prove it’s genuine.


PAN CARD NUMBER is known as Permanent Account Number registered on your pan card that will be given to you you if you register. The PAN signify that you are paying your tax. Its like a national Identity card because its required of you if want to do any bank transactions. The country that makes use of this is India. They use it to know those paying tax. The number on the card will have to be 10 in number.

Therefore, if you are not from India, perhaps from Nigeria or other countries,  then this UC News might not work because, the PAN CARD number and the picture of it is a must that you fill it. But I will suggest you ask your blogger friend from India or any friend you have in India to help send theirs so you can use and register. That means, you have to use that persons name when registering for the UC News.

Also, if perhaps you choose your account to type to be Organisations instead of Private, then you will be required to submit your Organization’s Corporate Identification Number (CIN). Provide such document so that you can continue setting up your UC News.

How To Submit Your Website To UC News

Method 1: Visit, you will see a popup with a yellow background and black letter saying ‘sign up’ click on sign up, fill in the options correctly with a working email and click on sign up.

Method 2: Verify your email address from the email that will be sent to you

Method 3: Fill in correctly all other options that will be given to you afterwards.

Method 4: Is to select the account operator name, blog category and enter mobile number. fill it in correctly and move to the next step which is

Method 6: Tax Form: this appear, you can as well ignore it if you do not have any information to fill on it

Method 7: Click on accept the terms and conditions and then click on the continue button.

Congratulations, you’ve finally and successfully submitted or added your blog or website to UC News or UC Browser news. After 48 hours you will be able to know whether your application was accepted or not.

In conclusion, after your application has been approved successfully, the last thing you need to do is to go to and click on “Submit an Article”. Add the post link you want to submit there. You can modify it to your test and then publish. With this, you can get at least roughly 10 to 20 readers daily. It can be more than that it depends on your post and how catchy and interesting it is.


Significance And Impact Of Beijing Women Conference

Significance And Impact Of Beijing Women Conference

Being the first world women conference ever conducted, Beijing women conference of 1995 was great significance that it opened the mindset of women towards the challenges facing them and gender equality was giving plans of actions to be tackled.

Before the Beijing conference, there had been other women conferences conducted in the previous years. Thanks to UN, the first world women conference was conducted in 1975 in Mexico, the second was in Copenhagen in 1980 while the third was in Nairobi in 1985. Therefore, on this post, we will be talking about the significance and impact of Beijing women conference.

Significance And Impact Of Beijing Women Conference

Beijing conference saw so many delegates from all part of the world such as a wife of the then United States president Hillary Clinton who gave a tremendous speech that is seen to be one of the best speech given so far in the whole world. The conference which was based on gender equality of women and the contribution to development had some areas pointed out. Those areas are:

  • Women and violence
  • Women and healthcare
  • Right of girl child
  • Women and quality education
  • Women and social and political participation
  • Women and poverty
  • Effects of women and armed conflicts
  • Women and participation in communication
  • Institutionalized mechanism for the advancement of women

According to Hillary Clinton, wife of the then president of America, she stated on the conference that ‘women rights is human rights and human rights is women right’ therefore, making the Beijing conference an eye opener and a great significance towards tackling the gender equality faced by women.

Another great significance and impact of Beijing women conference was in violence against women as a human rights issue which became visible and as a result, made government agreed to adopt and implement laws that eliminate gender based violence. As of today we can see laws regarding to se*ual harassment, rape e.t.c.

However, the conference was based on gender equality of women and their contribution to the development and peace.

One of the significance and impact of Beijing women conference was seen in the area of poverty. Series of measures towards tackling poverty among women and how to eradicating it was implemented.

Before the conference, you could see little or no girl in school. Taking Nigeria and Igbo tribe for example, parents see it as of no use to give a girl child quality education. The conference treated the issue and gave enough reasons why girl child should get educated. Not just education but quality education.

Today in politics, women hold so many public offices. Women contest presidential election example of this is Hillary Clinton of United States. Beijing conference 1995 tackled the inequalities among women and in social and political participation thereby giving them opportunities to participate in politics.

Unlike before, you can see little or no women in communication especially media. The inequality in women access to participation in all communication system has been broken that women today, counts highest in the communication system. In fact, this is one of the s significance and impact of Beijing women conference.

Beijing conference of 1995 was a great significance for treating the rights of a girl child and violence against them including the lack of respect for women and insufficient mechanism to promote the influence of women. Today you can see women participating in almost everything men do. You can as well see them in sports such as football, swimming, gymnastics etc. Countries of the world have adopted so many measures to promote the influence of women.

Today, health care among women has been approved unlike before. Women are given close range medical care when pregnant. You can also find women in the management of natural resources and in the safeguarding of the environment.

In conclusion, with the points listed above, you can see clearly the significance and impact of Beijing women conference cannot be overemphasized. It brought a lot of opportunities to women and thanks to United Nations for creating such avenue for women all over the world.


Cassper Nyovest Quotes

Cassper Nyovest Quotes

Below are some of Cassper Nyovest Quotes. Majority of Cassper Nyovest Quotes comes from his songs and its lyrics. Read Cassper Nyovest Quotes below and learn from it. You can as well read some of Nasty C SA Quotes and if you are wondering about Cassper Nyovest new car, then read about Cassper Nyovest Car: Both Old And New Cars. 

We all know Cassper Nyovest to be one of the best South Africa talented and most prestigious rapper of our time. The guy knows how to do his work well and as a result of that, he has reap his fruits. Please note that this page is updated on a regular basis to add more quotes as soon as he releases it.

Cassper Nyovest Quotes

  • You know you are rich when everybody say you are their cousin and all the bi***es wanna hold your hand and public.
  • Some people who pretends that they hate you are actually just fans who wish they could just get your attention.
  • Don’t be scared of losing yourself.

Its all good bro. Ain’t perfect but I pray and keep a pure heart. Don’t let the world’s filth to change your heart. Been in many situations where I was pushed to the limit and somehow I managed to turn around and walk away. Life has a way of putting things into perspective.

Your biggest problem is that you think little of yourself and get uncomfortable when you hear other people speak life into their lives. You believe nobody deserves to be happy because you’re not happy. Try and change your attitude and you will see a big difference in your life.

I have been laughed at and mocked for dreaming before. That has never stopped me from framing and working towards my dreams.

Having a beard is the next best thing after having a six pack. If you have both, you are rocking.

I won’t lie. Bearded niggas are f***ing sh*t up. I am so glad I didn’t laser my beard when I didn’t want it 5 years ago.


Cassper Nyovest Car: Both Old And New Cars

Cassper Nyovest Car

Many Cassper Nyovest Fan all over the world have been asking about Cassper Nyovest car both old and new cars so on this post, I will be writing with all pleasure the Cassper Nyovest Car: Both Old And New Cars. Read below and enjoy.

You know, In South Africa, Cassper Nyovest seems to be one of the richest rappers in the entertainment industry. He started his music career an boom he made it. He even said it in one of his songs, ‘Mama I Made It’. The young guys knows how to do his thing the right way. You can as well read some of the best Cassper Nyovest Quotes.

Cassper Nyovest Car

However, after much success in his musical career, Cassper Nyovest decided to get himself a new ride. Therefore, in 2016, that was when the popular South African rapper Cassper Nyovest got him a new car called Bentley.

As if that was not enough, Cassper Nyovest went ahead to get another car for himself. Same Bentley but this time in another color in other to differentiate the two cars. Being more successful, Cassper Nyovest added another car to his garage, he bought brand new Mercedes Benz with 16 seater. The purpose of the 16 seater car was to enable his and his squared/crew travel during tours etc. So he decided to buy something big yet classy for himself and his crew.

It is important you know that those Bentley Cassper Nyovest bought cost about R3,8Million. If converted to US Dollars, it will be $198,500 and $263,400.

One thing about Cassper Nyovest is that he buy car anytime he wish and the see the need. He doesn’t wait till the old one gets old or he becomes tired of it. He was able to but the 16 seater Mercedes Benz for himself and his crew because he saw the need and of a truth, the new whip serves them well during tours.

Cassper Nyovest got himself a V-Class. When he bought this car, he twitted saying that at least he has bought one and that he almost sold other of his cars to buy it. Stating that the V-Class is a true luxury car. However, his fans began to react over it. some commented saying that they want the car too. In all, he was congratulated by his fans.

Though in 2017, Cassper Nyovest stated that he was broke and as such wants to sell this cars. The thing was during his Fill Up FNB Stadium in 2017 that he was looking for money to finance the show coupled with the fact that two of his workers was not yet paid then. So because of that, he was looking for someone who would buy his cars so as to fund the concert.

Cassper Nyovest Car 2018

Cassper Nyovest 2018 is probably one of those cars he has previously bought as there is no news yet about his new. If he has bought another car, we will know cause he will definitely tell his fans. What do you think?


Nasty C SA Quotes

Nasty C SA Quotes

Below are Nasty C SA Quotes, Nasty C, one of the best, talented and prestigious South African rapper. These are some of his quotes and his sayings. Some of Nasty C SA Quotes are from his songs lyrics. However, these Nasty C SA Quotes covers both love, heartbreaks, encouragement and empowerment. Read Nasty C SA Quotes below and learn from it.  Not that this page is updated regularly for his new quotations and sayings. You can as well read Cassper Nyovest Quotes.

Nasty C SA Quotes

Many women are single but her heart is already taken by a guy she knows is no good for her. Stop having a crush on people who doesn’t recognize you. You can’t flex on me if I’m not paying attention to you. Redirect your energy fam!

You’ve survived challenges in life before, you’ll survive again. Don’t let one bad experience define your whole life. Don’t give up on yourself. I never chase a dream I design it I’m building. I’m building a legacy out of hobby. I’m Not QUAVO or OFFSET. But You’re Stupid If You TAKEOFF & Let MIGO! Real friends don’t count favors

Sometimes gotta disrespect the beat. Don’t be scared of it. If I didn’t have family, I will celebrate my xmas with my fans. My number one fan will write me a letter and I will respond. Music is life.

Only faithful people phones are dry. Short girls are the best. You can carry them around your house like a laptop. Just because I am dating a celebrity doesn’t mean I’m gay.

  • Growing up ugly made me humble.
  • Anything That hurts you, teaches you a lesson
  • Stop breaking your own heart for someone who isn’t even fighting to keep yours in one piece.
  • Her money is her money. My money is our money. Men should provide and stop making excuses.
  • You’re failing coz you’re forcing somebody body else’s dream onto yourself.
  • Ladies sometimes a ni**a comes back in your life to check if you’re still stupid
  • A good di** and lies can make a female waste eight years of her life.
  • Having someone who can handle all your moods is such a blessing
  • You grow by being authentic. It’s not about the credit, you can keep that. I want a connection.
    I want you to listen to me & feel something.
  • The hardest part about loving someone is watching that person love another person
  • If you got something good going, don’t tell anybody. One day you’ll be successful.
  • I love not having to stress about anything
  • Always Appreciate your woman or another man will.
  • There are people out here with the purest and most genuine hearts, and they still get played
  • Don’t feel bad if you upload a picture & nobody comments on it. Who knows? Maybe you left everyone speechless
  • Most people don’t recognize a blessing when there’s no money involved.
  • We hurt people who love us and love people who hurt us.
  • Pay attention to the dreams you have.
  • You will find your perfect person when you realize there’s no such thing
  • Don’t forget God when you get what you prayed for.
  • Guys we need to learn to say “no I have a girlfriend” to protect our girls dignity, reputation and health.
  • Be careful who you vent to. I’m so proud of me and everything I’ve overcome.
  • Just because we stopped communicating doesn’t mean we have beef. You just move funny and I moved right out your way.

New year is not about changing the dates but direction, it’s not about changing the calendar but commitment, it’s not about changing the actions but attitude, it’s not about changing the face but faith fruit and focus. May you commit and create the best new year ever!

I had so much to lose but I couldn’t stand losing you. You caught me at a time when I was battered and bruised, had my spark stolen and my heart broken and you were the only one with the tools.

  • I still remember when the teacher man said “I wouldn’t make it”, but I made it anyway.
  • Everyday we pray for long life give thanks to Jah for more life in the winter and in the summer.
  • I surround myself with people that’s prepared to go the extra mile for me.
  • I’m going through some s***, even started listening to gospel, I may lose my shift if I have to see another doctor. I’ve been losing sleep, all this fame give me a shock.
  • My middle fingers is like my second child, I raise it well.
  • No one wants to be unemployed and broke, so stop calling people names when the sun is shining on your side.
  • I need to learn to keep the tunnel through my ears clear cause that’s where the lies go.

I’m in love with your smile, I can tell when you hiding something behind it, I know I can’t yell at you now but look in your eyes and I will choke. I can tell when your eyes are lying but I let it go cause all it takes is a drop in performance to damage your soul.

More on Nasty C SA Quotes

I look in your eyes just to buy me some hope. I build up all the courage to confront you and I feel like I’m trying to slide up a slope. Now you know how to touch my soul, you just have to blink a couple of times and they soak. Your eyes and your lies are like fire and smoke.

  • Diamonds makes her dance, dance, makes her spaz on my lap. She tried to battle with my jewelry.
  • Common you can do it. Don’t be scared to do it. I never run out of sauce. Can you not see that I’m gorgeous.
  • The way I got money moves but I ain’t gotta dance no more cuz my jewelry got hella moves. I used to be broke but now I got notes.
  • Is easier to forget you when my energy is drained, see I’m expected to make the hits and to never feel pain, that’s not easy in mana. You left me at a very young age, never made it to make deposit in my memory bank.
  • I came from nothing to something, man I was made for this.
  • I’ve been through the bulshit like a passage that just made me a man, that just made me a savage, thats just stuff and my balance. Guess it made me attractive cuz I f*** like a rabbit.

I was rapping in all my classes funny n***** watching through the struggle now you call me tryna link up like you had me. Just give me this little bit of answer, where was you when I pull up the shows in a taxi? Where the f**k was you when I was dying rushing to the doctor’s, praying it ain’t cancer. Where was you when I was skipping classes, struggling with the verses to impress Cassper. Where was you when I was getting bashed by my own dad talking about a masters. I put everything on the line.

  • Mama you ok now, you safe now. You in a better place now. I will see you another day.
  • Don’t worry about a thing now, you got wings now. You looking over everything now, mama I’ve turned into a star now.

Mama I wrote to you, got something to show to you, your only son just fed the family, I feel like it’s overdue. You played your part like you were supposed to do and if I see you in heaven you know that I’m holding you.

They say I need a different plan, that I need to get one of this famous ni**as girlfriends naked and put the video on Instagram. Trust me if I pull her up a bigger glass then she will show a little ass and she might put her hands up in a n***** pants.

Pops told me I’m not the only n**** out there with a talent. Had to do whatever just to make it happen. Now I’m in the Penthouse with Italian bit***** throwing it at me and telling me how I really really have it.

  • We look for money like we need to scratch our palms bad.
  • I have to ask God if I’m moving right cause now I can’t go to church like I used to. I have to call a pastor on a Tuesday night.
  • I only call pops like once a month and send something home like twice a month I passed out and forgot about last night about 25 times a month.
  • Pops seeing women all around his son and he asked if I will be wifing one.

More on Nasty C SA Quotes

It’ll happen when the last time is right but I don’t know when the right time will come. I’m having good times only. Sometimes good is not holy. I haven’t even touched the good book and a n**** reads is like a cookbook. Said the recipe to the foul enemies is found in the good book. When your soul is empty just turn to it. I have no doubt in the good book.

  • I wrote my wrongs and then they told me that my font is bad.
  • God bless the women of today and how they dressed but s*** man I’m telling my baby to hide her breast.
  • Now I’ve always been outcasted for being about this rap sh** but I’ve always been worse than what coming out your mouth.
  • If you’re certain you can take me on like Ali, you’re probably thinking like Eddie Long.
  • They told us that education was the key to success so how did dropout secceed? I think they need to confess.
  • Tell me do you want a liver or kidney from me. If you hate me then why do you log in to Twitter for me?
  • Look into the mirror and rate yourself. Look at the s*** that we doing and motivate yourself, brace yourself.
  • A bit too much to weigh the music and the school sh*** and it’s all because I tried to balance both.
  • What goes around comes back around like a blunt.

You know your father don’t like me and you know he’s always at home. You know he hates me cuz of all the s*** I say in this song. I get a little too comfortable, I start telling the truth. I speak like I’m on the microphone when it’s just me and you.


Non Interest Banking: Facts And Summary

Non Interest Banking: Facts And Summary

A non interest banking is the type of banking that do not take or give interests on assets and operating basically under the whim and caprices of sharia law. Each Islamic bank has a sharia board made up of sharia scholars as well as financial expats who are responsible for determining what activities are and are not Sharia compliant.

Non interest banking is majorly based on two main financial principles. Firstly, investments is to be made in the privet sector through interest free financing. Secondly, the development of financial instruments is to be done on the basis of profit and loss sharing as well as risk sharing.

The law guiding the operation of non interest banking considers interest as an unjustified increase of capital, with no effort made to earn it, and as such it is considered illegal and illicit thereby renders the earnings from false value.

It is important to know that argument about the prohibition of interest in non interest banking are still intense. Some of the critical ones that are against are; that interest rate have no moral foundation, that abstinence from consumption is not a justification of rewards, and that there are risks justifying the supplement of paying for capital lending if the loan is guaranteed.

In addition to the prohibition of interest payments, the law guiding non-interest banking treats money strictly as a medium of exchange. Also the creditor/debtor relationship is defined differently than in the conventional financial institutions. the provider of funds becomes a partner in a project thereby assumes the risk activity with the entrepreneur and shares profit as well as losses.

Moreover, the concept of interest is based in the believe that the Qur’an bans all interest rates, regardless of its rate or form. In fact, what the Qur’an bans is riba, the practice of doubling the debt of a borrower unable to make restitution on schedule, including both the principal and the accumulated interest.

Riba is perceived to push defrauders into enslavement and as such considered an acute source of social friction. Whatever the notion of the virtues of risk-free returns, the crux of the argument is that profit is legitimate only as a reward for risk.

Non Interest Banking

Literature on the non interest banking and monetary policy is not quite rich especially in Africa and in Nigeria in particular where the operation of non-interest banking is at a preliminary stage.

However, it is imperative to mention a few especially from countries which share similar developmental characteristics with Nigeria. Empirical assessment on the merit of the interest-free banking system where initiated by Darrat (1988), the study showed that the banking system in Tunisia is more stable without interest bearing assets than if the assets were to exist.

More recent studies by Darrat (2000) and Kia (2001) provided further empirical evidences on the effectiveness of the interest-free monetary and banking system in Iran. These studies found that both short and long-run interest-free money demand functions are stable and their coefficients are invariant with respect to policy and other exogenous shocks.

Kia and Darrat (2003) compare the demand equations for money and profit-sharing deposits and found that the demand for profit-sharing deposits has the most stable and policy invariant function. The study further suggested that the profit-sharing deposits could represent a credible instrument for monetary policy making in Iran.

Samad (1999) and Kaleem (2000) provided empirical support for the stability of the non-interest monetary instruments in a dual banking system in Malaysia. Kaleem (2000) examines the Malaysian data spanning the period 1994 to 1995 and found that non-interest banking is less crises-ridden compared with the interest bearing conventional banking to its asset-linked element.

Despite the support in favour of non-interest banking framework as a better tool for monetary policy, Some studies disagree on the basis that more detailed aspects of the relationships between the interest-free banking and various aspects of financial risk reveal some concerns.

Baldwin (2002) showed that there is a general lack of awareness in adopting the best risk management practices in the countries that concentrate on the supply side of the monetary policy due to an erroneous belief that a non-interest bank, by virtue of its interest-free nature, is not subjected to the interest rate fluctuations.

Rosly (1999) found that non-interest bank in Malaysia are at disadvantage compared to the conventional banks especially during the period of increase in market interest rates. Nothing that, while the conventional banks could reap higher profits from rising interest rates, non-interest bank face negative fund gap since interest-free financing is based on fixed rate, and that deposit liabilities are bench-marked against the prevailing interest rates.

Kaleem and Verhoeven (2005) examined whether interest-free banking institution in Malaysia are subject to credit risk, interest-rate risk and liquidity risk. The study found that while the deposit money banks with interest-free financing have significantly lower risks and liquidity risks, they have significantly higher interest-rate risk than the banks with non-interest financing.

Another study by Kaleem and Isa (2006) reveal another weakness of the interest free monetary system particularly in a dual banking system such as in Malaysia they studied. They found that the financial market set up operating at the time of conducting the study was not in favour of the interest-free banking system because it enables the conventional banks to take advantage of the arbitrage opportunities provided by the dual banking system.

In trying to established a level operating ground for both system, it should be gotten clear that despite the different philosophical foundations governing the two systems, they are both subject to the teams macroeconomic conditions.

Bacha (2000) relates that nevertheless, the differences of which one is better than the other may lie in the profile of the customers that subscribed to both banking systems. He further suggested that there is always a possibility of switching between the two systems. Also from the customers point of view, depositors can take advantage of the arbitrage that arises from the rate differentials between the two systems.

Challenges Of Non-Interest Banking

1. The absence of appropriate control measure of the intermediate objective by the Central Banks may detract from the target of consideration monetary aggregate as an objective of monetary policy.

2. The prohibition of interest payments treats money strictly as a medium of exchange. Also, the creditor/debtor relationship is defined differently than in the conventional financial institutions. This makes the concept to look abstract.

3. Shortage of human capital: The requirements that the members of the Shariah Committees and the Sharia Advisory Council must be academicians and Sharia expats in Islamic banking and finance is a challenge, and more worrisome is the fact that even the few ones are advanced in age. There is also dearth of scholars with the combined knowledge of Sharia jurisprudence and modern economic finance. This affects the efficiency with which a verdict on new non-interest products, since new products have to be cleared. by Sharia scholars before they can be adopted.

4. There is no generally acceptable accounting and auditing reporting standards for non-interest banking. This makes it difficult to compare the performance of non-interest banks and financial condition of different banks.

5. The absence of Sharia complaint liquidity management instruments would make the job of the monetary authority more cumbersome.

6. The challenge of image: Many are skill skeptical on the operation of non-interest banks as some view it as a religious affair, while others link it to terrorism.

7. There is lack of appropriate non-interest based investments for financial budget deficits.

8. There is general lack of awareness of what a non interest-based investment entails.

9. The activity of the non-interest banking precludes the use of discount rates and open market operation to influence liquidity. These tools are considered to be one of the best monetary policy tools especially in this age of globalization and financial engineering.

10. Depositors of funds are treated as if they are shareholders in non-interest banking as such implementing it in an economy that has experience long regime of the opposite would present some challenge. Depositors under the non-interest banking framework are not guaranteed of the nominal value of a predetermined rate of return on their deposits.

11. Financial market operations would not be in favour of the interest-free banking system because it enables the conventional banks to take advantage of the arbitrage opportunities provided by the dual banking system.

12. Another challenge of non interest banking is that there are no firm rule guiding the determination of profit/loss which is a cardinal element of non-interest financing. This may create conflicts of interest.

Major Things To Know About Non-Interest Banking

1. Musharakah: The literal meaning of Muaharakah is sharing. It is a joint enterprise that is form for the purpose of conducting business in which all the partners share the profit/loss accrued from the business according to a ratio of contributions. Thus corresponds closely to equity market in which shares can be acquired by the general public. It has rules of management that includes a profit determination/distribution, reviews of the contract as well as termination.

The Muaharakah has a certificates which is usually used as a tool as a tool of monetary policy as it makes possible for all people to invest in great and profitable projects, and at the same time help Central Bank to control the volume of money flexible enough to bring stability in goods and money market when it wants to execute monetary policy.

2. Mudarabah: This is a kind of business partnership where one partner gives money to another for investments in profitable legal ventures. The fund supplier is called “Rabb-ul-Mal” while the fund manager is called ‘Mudaraba’. The major difference of Mudarabah and Musharakah is that Mudarabah is valid for single individual/entity as partners while the later involves several partners. The Mudaraba can be different forms ranging ranging from a restricted Mudaraba to a non-restricted Mudaraba. The rules of engagement and management is as enshrined in the Islamic jurisprudence.

3. Murabahah: (Cost-plus Financing). This is a form of business transaction that involves the sale of goods at a price that includes a profit margin agreed by the parties involved.

4. Ijara: Ijara is a form of transaction that operates as lease with an option to buy. The banks normally buy the property and lease it to a client and the client pays for both the purchase price and the rent price.

5. Qard: Qard is an interest-free loans that is given for a fixed period of time on a goodwill basis and the borrower is only required to pay the principal of the loan amount only.

6. Hibah: Hibah which means gift; is a willingly payment made as appreciation in return for a benefit received. The gift can also be used by banks to absorb savings from the customers.

7. Wakalah (Agency): Wakalah is a business arrangement where individuals or organizations authorize another individual/organization to act on behalf to execute a specific business task.

8. Ghara: Ghara is an unclear fact or condition. This is highly prohibited in non-interest banking as it renders business transaction null and voild.

9. Wadlah (Safekeeping): Wadlah is a business arrangement where one deposits cash or assets in a bank for safekeeping. The bank guarantees the safety of the item kept and charges a fee for looking after the item. The customer is allowed to withdraw the item at any time he/she wishes.


Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies

Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies

The question is how would modern naval warfare look like? If there is another warfare at the sea in this modern day, will marines resort to the old naval warfare tactics or will they apply new or use modern naval warfare tactics.

Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies

It is important to note that, things are changing. Due to globalization, the world has become a small village. Thanks to technology, it has made the world to change and as long as technology is concerned, things will continue to change. New naval instrumental especially naval warfare instrument are being manufactured and because of that the Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies used before may not work if Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies  that will favour the new investments is not made.

We can trace Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies in the cold war, perhaps after world war II, after the development of long range missiles. There has been such a significant number of Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies whereby the key is to identify the adversary in the fog of abstaining from being distinguished and keeping the foe at all cost from recognizing you by ensuring that your fight space is invigorated. A fight space is a region where the leader of the armed force will stay and recognize, track, connect with and annihilate the foe before they represent a peril to them. This fight space is more often than not around the navel power and this sort of strategies works in an open space.

The main thing the commander needs to do is to think about the geography of the mission. He should need to look at all the advantages the adversary is accepted to have. The commander additionally need to know the foe’s request of fight the goals of the mission and so forth. Also, when the adversary is at long last recognized that is one stage ahead.

In Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies, the commander necessities to sort out his powers. He needs to put into thought the axis as is demolished as it might change extra time. The commander and his forces need an incredible decent location. To have the capacity to recognize any potential lethal strike that is propelled from far away. For a better understanding of naval warfare, I suggest you read Development Of Naval Warfare: From Medieval Time To Modern Era. You can as well read about War: Causes, Effects, Benefits, Disadvantages Of War.


Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies

Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies

At this present time one would not seem to understand the efficacy of naval power in the world, do to it secondary role it plays in this contemporary period. Though, we can find most of its advantages when looking at some aspects of a country’s military background. Unlike the ancient times when a complete control over the sea determines your military strength.

Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies

Naval warfare have evolutionized just as different forms of warfare, moving from the classical era, middle ages, modern era and contemporary era. Therefore on this post, I will carefully examine the Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies

Classical Times

When examining naval tactics or Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies employed during sea warfare, we have no choice than to look from the ancient/classical times down to the present time. In classical times, we are talking about those states that dominated the sea with their naval strength example of which are Phoenicians, Greeks(Athens and Sparta), Romans, and Carthage. They saw the need to employ their naval strength during battle, either for supplies or combating enemy vessel in the sea, their ship were light weighted, using oarsmen to propel it.

The strength of the oarsmen could really go a long way in winning naval battles, little no wonder the Romans had carried vessels with about 300 oarsmen because this oarsmen determines the speed of the ship, the main focus of these warlords were to cause damages and wreck to the enemy’s ship which will later to result to sinking.

The move for this states to dominate in the sea gave rise to the tactical build up or development of sophisticated warring ships with spines or sharp blades at the sides, hidden archers, inflammable oil and flaming stones. At this time more attention was lay on causing wreck to an enemy’s vessel or even finding a means of holding down the enemy’s ship in other to attack them on a physical sword combat.

Middle Ages

During the middle ages with the effect of industrialization, naval warfare or Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies took on a different shape with the introduction of “torpedo” by Al Hassan an Arab inventor, this torpedo was able to destroy a whole vessel. It is usually strategically shot at the enemy’s vessel, with a spear at its peak was able to stick to the vessel before explosion.

Notwithstanding the competition on sea power at this time, sea trade was high with the British having a good control over some territories due to her trade power as result of which she was seen as a predator by most states in the Northern African region as well as European region therefore, she fought a lot of wars in other maintain this power. Her prowess in the sea gave her a good standing. With a strong naval strength she was able to withheld lots of states that sought to conquer her.

The British was able to use the naval warfare tactics of ship cannons which was mostly placed at the side of their vessel to cause serious havoc to ships when the are in the same proportion. The fortification of ship at this time was not just based on weaponry alone but the ship itself, the use of bronze ship stern was introduced, which greatly reduced the effect of any attack either by fireballs or cannons.

However, the British were good at maneuvers, they were able to tweak and strategize in a way that amazes their enemy, this was because of their familiarity with the sea and they understood wind signs, having different stations on island.

Modern Warfare Tactics

The modern era was a total turn around when looking at the various tactics in naval warfare or Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies. This was the time that naval warfare went under water unlike the conventional water level combat, it was the dawn of targeted explosives and vessels that could carry large instrument of war. It was indeed the dawn of submarines, precision guided torpedoes, and aircraft carrier. This hardware and vessel were made to carry out an effective military operation or impact during war times. The events of World War I and World War II clearly demonstrates the use of these hardware. To understand more about the Modern Naval Warfare tactics and strategies, I urge you to read: Modern Naval Warfare Tactics And Strategies.


Thucydides Philosophy To Understanding International Relations

Thucydides Philosophy To Understanding International Relations

International studies and diplomacy as a course of study that studies all phenomenon. It studies the relation and interaction among states and other elements in the international system across national boundaries. It also examines how these multifaceted relation are skillfully managed through diplomatic means. However, rendered differently, international studies can be defined as the study of international relations and transnational relations.

Generally speaking, the study and understanding of international system can be approached from three levels of analysis. These are:

  • The system level
  • The state level
  • The individual level

Over time and space before the full fledged emergence of international relations as a distinct academic field of study. In the 20th century, the foundation for the understanding and appreciation of the dynamics and intricacies of international relations, the working of the international system was laid in the philosophical or ideological disposition and reasoning of Greek philosophers, political thinkers, historian and social contract from the classical times through the modern or contemporary era.

On this post, i’m going to write on how Thucydides helped us in the better understanding of the international relations.

Thucydides Philosophy To Understanding International Relations

One of the foremost writer whose philosophical disposition thoughts established the framework for the understanding on the nature of international relation is to Thucydides. Thucydides Philosophy To Understanding International Relations: Thucydides was an Athenian military commander in 424 BCE but was later defeated by Braside the great Spartan General and this led to his expulsion from the Athenian army when he was sent on exile for a long period of time.

The famous work of Thucydides which is of interests to scholars and students of international relation is the Peloponnesian War. In this book, he gave a chronicle of the war between Athens and Sparta from a realistic perspective which today can be rightly identified as the foundation or rational behind realist thinking and comprehension of international relation and system.

Thucydides argued that the cause of the Peloponnesian War was the growth of Athenian military power which caused fear in Sparta. The growth of Athenian power to carry out a pre-emptive military attack on Athens.

Being one of the generals and having witnessed the war, Thucydides was unbiased when writing down things that happened in the Peloponnesian War.

Thucydides wrote on realism, he believed that might is power and state engage into war in order to achieve their various interests. If you think about it very closely, and relate it to the modern international system to present, you will find out that Thucydides was making lots of sense. In international system there is no permanent friend but permanent interests and when this interests clash, the states involve would do anything possible to achieve their interest either through diplomatic means, by alliance, buffer state, armament and if this fails, the state will result to using might which is war to achieve their interests.

For example, North Korea and South Korea crisis because of North Korea’s possession of missile and nuclear weapon which united states have intervened by trying to establish “talks” with North Korea, North Korea refused to establish a talk with US officials stating clearly that until their national interest is met which is that United States should recognise her North Korea as a nuclear power then they will not establish a talk with the US.

However, right from the ancient time to the world wars, realism has been the order of the day. Still on realism, Thucydides made us to understand that Athens increase in power and military strength was already rising as the world power that led to the wall, peloponnesian war. However, if you look closely during the 17th century, most wars fought can be related to balance of power and the Congress of Vienna 1815 went a long way in helping to establish a balance of power by sharing those disputed territories.

However, Thucydides also made mention of justice in his book, stating that the dialogue between Spartans and Athens after the war had the Athens calling for justice. He stated that there were gross violation of human rights. He helped us to understand that after war, the defeated states doesn’t have any say and they are bound to pay compensation.

For example, after the Franco-Prussian war of 1871, that was scope-fully caused by Bismark. France was defeated and in 1871 at the Treaty of Frankfurt, France was asked to pay 5,000,000,000 to Germany. They also lost valuable coal and iron areas of Alsace and Lorraine.